Moratorium Cheat Sheet

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Land clearing on peatland, Indonesia. Photo by Ryan Woo/CIFOR

BOGOR, Indonesia (20 May, 2011)_You have all seen the Moratorium maps, but what about the numbers? Here are some numbers that put the Indonesian moratorium into context—selected statistics about forest, peat and oil palm, derived from official sources, published literature, and media reports. See here for analysis of these numbers, but some of them speak for themselves.

The Numbers: Forests

127.7 Million ha          Forestland: land designated for forest use (Kawasan hutan, KH; state forest lands; sometimes referred to as the ‘forest estate’) (MoF, FAO 2010); not all covered by forest in 2006.

89-92 Million ha         Forested land in the Kawasan Hutan (in land designated for forest use) in 2006: land covered by forest—primary, secondary, logged, natural (MoF, FAO 2010).

8.1-8.4 Million ha       Forested land outside the Kawasan Hutan, in Areal Penggunaan Lain (APL) in 2006—primary, secondary, logged, natural (MoF, FAO 2010).

64 Million ha              The area of forest and peat affected by the two-year suspension of new permits “The moratorium will apply to 64 million hectares of forests across the country”–Agus Purnomo, Jakarta Post

44 Million ha               Primary forest in KH in 2006, as defined by MoF—‘untouched for hundreds of years’ (Jakarta Post); determined by logging roads in remote sensing imagery; type listed as a target of the moratorium (MoF, FAO 2010).

1 Million ha                 Primary forest in APL in 2006, as defined by MoF—‘untouched for hundreds of years’; determined by logging roads in remote sensing imagery (MoF, FAO 2010).

38-39 Million ha         Forested area in protected (Hutan Lindung, HL) and conservation (Hutan Konservasi, HK) forest in 2006, already protected from conversion by law (MoF 2006, FAO 2010); total area in HL and HK was 48-50 M ha in 2006.

35 Million ha              Proposed alternative forest area set aside for industrial development “…we allocate 35 million hectares of degraded forest for agriculture, mining and other development uses.” –Agus Purnomo, Reuters

15 Million ha               KH land in 2006 defined as ‘shrub’ by MoF; not included in the 89-92 M ha of forested land (thus, in addition to it); another 24 M ha in KH is ‘non-forest land’ that could be already developed and/or in use (also in addition to the 89-92 M ha) (MoF, FAO 2010).

7.5 Million ha              APL land in 2006 defined as ‘shrub’ by MoF; not included in the 8.4 M ha of forested APL land (thus, in addition to it); an additional 37-39M ha of APL is ‘non-forest land’ and very likely to be in use and/or developed (MoF, FAO 2010).

3.4 Million ha              Planted forest (timber, pulp plantations) on all soil types in the KH in 2006 (MoF, FAO 2010)

1.2 Million ha              Planted forest (timber, pulp plantations on all soils types in APL in 2006 (MoF, FAO 2010)

The Numbers: Peatlands

22.5 Million ha            Peatlands in Indonesia; a forest/land type listed as a target of the moratorium—12% of the total land area, 50% of the lowland (non-mountainous) area (Hooijer et al. 2010, from Wetlands International and FAO). Most estimates range from 18-20 M ha, with one as high as 27 M ha (Rieley and Page 2005).

13.7 Million ha            Peatlands that were forested in 2000, based on remote sensing (Hooijer et al. 2010 from GLC 2000)

1.1 Million ha              Croplands on peat in 2000; drained, not irrigated, based on remote sensing (Hooijer et al. 2010); likely to be oil palm.

2.8 Million ha              Planned and current oil palm on peat for the period 2000-2005, based on concession data (Hooijer et al. 2006 cited in Wicke et al. 2008). Note: the exact dates of the survey are not given; it is possible that an earlier date would mean even more concessions had been granted between survey date and publication date.

2.8 Million ha              Croplands on peat in 2010 based on extrapolation of an Indonesia-wide peat deforestation rate of 1.3% per year from 1985-2000 (2.78 M ha) (calculated from Hooijer et al. 2010); considering then current peat deforestation rates in Sumatra (1.8% per year) and Kalimantan (1.9% per year) over the entire area yields an estimate of 2.84 M ha.

0.7 Million ha             Productive oil palm on peat in Sumatra and Kalimantan in 2010, based on remote sensing (does not include immature oil palm or areas under 200 ha; Koh et al. 2011). Note: methods used by Koh may result in an under-estimate (Paoli et al. 2011).

2 Million ha                 Planned and existing timber plantations on peat for the period 2000-2005, based on concession data (Hooijer et al. 2006 cited in Wicke et al. 2008). Note: the exact dates of the survey are not given; it is possible that an earlier date would mean even more concessions had been granted between survey date and publication date.

2 Million ha                 Planned and existing logging concessions on peat for the period 2000-2005, based on concession data (Hooijer et al. 2006 cited in Wicke et al. 2008). Note: the exact dates of the survey are not given; it is possible that an earlier date would mean even more concessions had been granted between survey date and publication date.

The numbers: Oil Palm

4 Million ha                 Productive oil palm area in 2006, on peat and non-peat soils (MoAg 2007); immature oil palm yields occurs on an additional 2 M ha.

5 Million ha                 Productive oil palm in 2007, on peat and non-peat soils (GAPKI)

6.3 Million ha              Productive oil palm in 2010, on peat and non-peat soils based on remote sensing (does not include immature oil palm or areas under 200 ha, Sumatra and Kalimantan only, Koh et al 2011) Note: methods used by Koh likely to result in an under-estimate (Paoli et al 2011).

7.9 Million ha              Oil palm plantations in 2009 (productive and immature), on peat and non-peat soils, based on government statistics under the Government of Indonesia strategy to increase food production—‘2009-2014 roadmap for food development’ (Jakarta Post, Jan 30, 2010)

9.7 Million ha              Planned extent of oil palm plantations in 2015, on peat and non-peat soils, according to a Government of Indonesia strategy to increase food production—‘2009-2014 roadmap for food development’ (Jakarta Post, Jan 30, 2010)

10.7 Million ha            Estimated extent of oil palm plantations in 2020 according to Indonesian Palm Oil Commision (IPOC) (Wicke et al 2008)

12.5 Million ha            Estimated extent of oil palm plantations in 2020 according to FAO (Wicke et al 2008)

23-25 Million ha         Estimated extent of oil palm plantations in 2020 based on extrapolation of current national and provincial rates of expansion, respectively, in the early 2000s (Wicke et al 2008).


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Further reading

References

FAO. 2010. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 Country Report: Indonesia. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.

Hooijer, A., Silvius, M., Wosten, H., and Page, S. 2006. Peat-CO2: Assessment of CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in SE Asia. Delft Hydraulics report Q3943.

Hooijer, A. S. Page, J. G. Canadell, M. Silvius, J. Kwadijk, H. Wosten, and J. Jauhiainen. 2010. Current and future CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in Southeast Asia. Biogeosciences 7: 1505–1514.

Koh, L. P., J. Miettinen, S. C. Liew, and J. Ghazoul. 2011 (in press). Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Paoli GD, Carlson KM, Hooijer A, Page SE, Curran LM, Wells PL, Morrison R, Jauhiainen J, Pittman A, Gilbert D, and Lawrence D. 2011 (in press). Policy Perils of Ignoring Uncertainty in Oil Palm Research: A Critique of Koh et al. (2011). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Rieley, J.O. and Page, S.E., editors. 2005. Wise Use of Tropical Peatlands: Focus on Southeast Asia. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Alterra.

Wicke, B., R. Sikkema, V. Dornburg, M. Junginger, and A. Faaij. 2008. Drivers of land use change and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia: overview of past developments and future projections. Final Report. Copernicus Institute, Universiteit Utrecht.

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